Tag Archives: Catedral

Outside Madrid: Toledo Spain [What to See]

imageThe majestic Alcazar (fortress) lording over the whole town of Toledo

You need not travel for hours just to escape the frenzied Madrid crowd and enjoy the quiet of the countryside. For instance, if you want to go to Toledo Spain and wish to experience what the country’s former capital has to offer, you need only less than a hour, or roughly 45 minutes to reach this magnificent hilltop town.

A popular day trip destination, Toledo is a veritable cultural melting pot of sorts if only because it was formed from the influence of three different religions — Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Such influences molded the place into the unique and historically rich town that it is now, as seen thru its Moorish walls and towers, plazas, cathedrals, museums, bridges, and Christian Roman ruins. Consequently, its overflowing uniqueness led UNESCO to declare it as a World heritage site.

imageToledo Cathedral

Toledo is the heart and soul of Spain, being the country’s former premier city, long before Madrid became the current one. This “pueblo” within the Castille La Mancha community sets itself apart from the rest of the region because it drips in so much grandeur and history.

A major Spain attraction like Cordoba and Compostela de Santiago, what makes Toledo a preferred destination is that it requires less travel hours to reach, which means much more time to explore the place.

A marked edge of Toledo is that going there is cheaper especially if you’re from Madrid. Traveling via bus will cost you less than 10 euros if you purchase round trip tickets. Likewise, sites and attractions are near each other. You’d get to walk through the town´s cobbled streets, which can be narrow and confusing – much like a labyrinth — but exciting, nonetheless.

Visit Toledo now, see it, and in no time at all, you will fall in love with this Spanish gem. Explore the town to the fullest, and be ready to add Toledo to your list of favorite Spanish towns.

MOORISH ATTRACTIONS

1. Alcazar de Toledo

This is Toledo´s famous fortress, standing at the highest point of the town. So-called because it was controlled by the town’s ancient conquerors, the Moors. It still maintains a vast military importance to the town.

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2. Puerta de Visagra

Also called Puerta Nueva de Visagra, this imposing monument serves as the gateway to the walled city of Toledo, Castilla La Mancha.

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3. Antiguas Murallas y Torres

The ancient towers and walls that surround Toledo are clear evidences of the Moorish influence on the town.

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4. Puente de San Martin y Rio Tajo

One of the popular town attractions is the San Martin Bridge with its 5 arches, spanning over the historic Tagus River (Tajo Rio). San Martin was a Roman bridge, but was rebuilt by the Moors in 1212.

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5. Iglesia de El Salvador

I’ll include the Church of El Salvador under the Moorish group since it was originally built as a mosque, at the time when the Muslims dominated the town.

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JEWISH INFLUENCE

1. Museo de Separdi

The Sephardic Museum boasts of a rich display of the history of the Jewish people in Toledo through its valuable Judaic artifacts. Where located: Calle Samuel Levi.

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2. The Menorrah Tiles

The white Menorrah or the Jewish candle holder over a blue-background tile. Many of these tiles are embedded in the streets of Toledo, indicating a once thriving Jewish presence.

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3. Transito Synagogue

The synagogue of the Transito is unique because while it is a bonafide Jewish place of worship, the edifice evokes a Moorish design. It is built by Samuel Ha-Levi (full name: Samuel Ben Meir Ha Levi Abulafia), a Jewish advisor to the 14th century King of Castile, Pedro I.

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4. Sta Maria la Blanca

Santa Maria la Blanca, now a small Christian church and museo, was built as a synagogue, functioning as one until the latter part of the 14th century. Ownership was eventually transferred to the Catholic Church. Christian worship and cultural events are said to be held at the site.

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ROMAN CATHOLIC LEGACY

1. Catedral de Santa Maria de Toledo

A popular Roman Catholic church patterned after the Bourges Cathedral of France, it is known by many names such as the Toledo Cathedral and Cathedral of Spain. It is considered one of the finest structures that utilized Gothic architecture. Entrance ticket price: 8 euros

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2. Iglesia de San Ildefonso

The church of San Ildefonso is dedicated to the town’s patron saint, St Ildefonsus. Run by the Jesuits, the church is primarily baroque in design. It is simple and charming church that’s popular among tourists who wander within the Calle de Mejico area.

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3. Convento de San Antonio, Dulces Artisanos

The Convent of San Antonio de Padua can be found in Santo Tome, one of the Town´s central streets. It sells pastries and sweets like yemas at affordable prices, to the delight of tourists and locals alike.

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OTHER TOLEDO SPAIN ATTRACTIONS

1. Plaza Zocodover

The town´s main square, a tourist attraction, is bustling like most other main squares in Spain. People rush about in the plaza throughout the day, mainly because of the surrounding restaurants, souvenir shops, and the fancy, red-colored tourist train that brings riders to the spot where panoramic photos of the town from afar can be taken.

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2. Museo de Santa Cruz

Its location is where an ancient hospital used to stand. Now, the Santa Cruz Museum features everything that represents the magnificent era of the country — the Spanish Renaissance. It presents works of Luis Trista and El Greco, among many other renowned artists. Direccion: Miguel de Cervantes

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3. Museo del Greco

Located along Paseo del Transito, the museum is dedicated to Domenikos Theotokopoulos — or simply El Greco. As his name implies, he was from Greece but settled in Toledo Spain where he led a prolific life as an artist and architect. Here, he produced most of his beautiful painting-masterpieces.

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4. Plaza del Ayuntamiento

Another popular town Square, where the Ayuntamiento, the body in charge of the town government, and the Cathedral de Sta Maria are found.

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5. Hostal San Tome

Hotels in Toledo Spain abound, and so finding a nice accommodation is easy to be had if you want to stay in town overnight or for a few days. Hostal San Tome belongs to the list of fine Toledo hotels — for one thing, its location is right in the middle of the action. Booking a room here is the perfect thing to do. Here is its website.

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How to reach Toledo:

Bus: An ALSA bus is bound for Toledo every 20 to 30 minutes. Go to the ALSA station at Plaza Eliptica and buy tickets for 5.39 euros apiece. You pay less, 9.70 euros, if you purchase ida y vuelta tickets. Duration of travel: approximately 45 minutes.

Train: Take the Renfe AVE service at Atocha station, the price is around 25 euros (round trip). The train option is much faster; time of travel via Renfe is approximately 30 minutes.

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Mapa

Visiting Santiago de Compostela [And My Must-Do’s for a More Meaningful Revisit (Hopefully)]

Just when I thought that Andalucia would be my last outside-Madrid trip and I would simply wait for the cooler months to arrive before I ever join any group tour again, here comes another irresistible invitation – a single-day visit of Santiago de Compostela. The trip was made to coincide with Feast day of the beloved saint – St. James.
imageTo be honest, it’s just now that I learned about the place and so I was wary about going. But after having been told that the spectacular sight of the cathedral alone is worth the long and arduous travel (and the summer heat woes), I was pretty much convinced eventually. I got curious, and so I checked it online. What I saw were all magestic images.

It did remind me of another great cathedral, or basilica — La Sagrada Familia, and strongly believed that both belong to the same league. Likewise, my interest in Santiago got piqued by the stories about the brave and amorous adventures of the peregrinos (pilgrims) and their quest to conquer the El Camino trail.

Off to the Feast of Saint James, Santiago de Compostela

Some 500 or so miles from the city of Madrid, in the Northwestern portion of the Iberian peninsula, is the third most popular and spiritual Christian site in the world (after Jerusalem and Rome) – Galicia’s Santiago de compostela.

To the determined pilgrim and serious devotee to the saint, the most revered cathedral in all of Galicia is the ultimate destination. To finally stand before it and appreciate its utter grandeur is the sweetest reward for any pilgrim’s immeasurable effort; a laborious trek of numerous roads, highway sides, and trails, all of which comprise the St. James Way, a seemingly endless journey that spans several hundreds of miles.

Such a journey is the supreme religious sacrifice known as the Camino de Santiago.

Let’s get it straight. While named after him, St. James didn’t do the camino himself. After his death, his body was transported to Spain and the Santiago de Compostela Cathedral became his remain’s resting place.

It took us more or less eight hours of bus travel (plus two stops along the way) to reach the site. After surrendering our bags at a designated warehouse for safekeeping, we immediately headed for the Praza Obradoiro. It is the main square, and the most popular in the area, being the location of the cathedral. It is presumably the center of the Old Town.

The following comprised my Santiago adventure:

Cathedral at Santiago de Compostela

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I joined this trip mainly for one thing – Galicia’s pride which is the Cathedral. So you can imagine my surprise when I laid my eyes on the holy edifice, and discovered much to my dismay that a significant portion of its facade is blocked by heavy scaffolding and boards.  I was so disappointed that I didn’t bother to inquire about how to gain entry to the roof top, where they say scenic images of the town can be shot.

The rest of our activities:

Witness the ceremonies at the Praza Obradoiro

imageA musical band marches towards the direction of Praza Obradoiro, as part of the feast day celebration

imageA glass enclosure with the statue of Saint James inside is carried by procession participants
imageA priest, obviously of high ranking because of the cap that he wears, carries a cane. I take this as a symbolism of the church recognizing the Compostela Pilgrimage as a highly-valued Christian tradition

imagePeople gather on both sides of the path that connects the church to the Palacio de Raxoi to watch the Feast Day ceremonies

Explore the main squares, edifices, and the surrounding streets

The portion within the perimeter of the main Santiago church is where most of the cultural, religious and scenic spots are found. We didn’t do much walking since most sites are in close proximity to each other. Although we had to walk the cobbled or stone-paved streets like Roa Nova and Roa Vilar when we finally had to look for a place to have our lunch. Many of the museums and lesser churches are free, while others you need to pay in order to enter. A few hours is enough to tour this part of the Town
imageThe building on tbe background is the Monastery of San Martiño Pinario, located at Praza de Inmaculada
imageBars Charra and O’Barazal, and Restaurante San Jaime are just three of the many options of would-be diners along Calle Raina
imageFronting the Praza das Praterias is the Torre da Berenguela, which dwarfs everyone below. People wait in line to enter the cathedral and attend the 12:30PM mass
imageRua Nova is one of the Old Town’s major streets. Connected to the Santiago de Compostela Cathedral, its length hosts a number of popular Galician cafes and restaurantes
imageConvento de San Francisco del Valle de Dios is a 13th century stone monastery built under the supervision and ownership of the Franciscans friars. It is declared as one of Santiago’s major historical monuments
imagePraza das Praterias, literally means Plaza of the Silversmiths, and is one of the major squares around the cathedral of Santiago

Attend the mass

imageGigantes walk in a single file. Their entry to the Cathedral is part of the ceremony that signals the start of the midday mass honoring Galicia’s Patron Saint

Savor Galician Food

1. Empanada Gallega – one of the typical foods this part of Spain. Also known as the Galician pie, I had this at Paradiso Cafeteria, Rua do Vilar, 29. Upon tasting, I knew my empanada had atun (tuna meat flakes) as the main filling.
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2. Torta de  Santiago (Tarta de Santiago in Spanish) - Galicia’s staple postre (dessert), it literally means cake of Saint James. It is a soft, spongy cake made of almonds the recipe of which originated way back in the Middle Ages. I had my delicious plate at Cafe Bar Pico Sacro, along Rua de San Francisco.

image3. Caldo Gallego – the popular hot and tasty broth soup of Galicia. It contains simple ingredients like cabbage, leafy greens, potatoes, and beans. I enjoyed it also at Paradiso Gallega, together with my empanada.

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4. Lasena Gallega - Santiago’s meatier version of the Italian lasagna. I had this for lunch at Cafe O Paris, Rua dos Bautizados.

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5. Polbo a Feira (Pulpo a la Gallega) - The octopus dish must be the most Galician of them all. I’d trade all the dishes above, except for this one. It’s quite a simple food fare, with the meat cooked by boiling just right. The pulpo, along with unpeeled boiled or roasted potatoes, is drenched in oil, and sprinkled with sea salt and paprika before it is served in a wooden plate. This dish at O Paris restaurant afforded me the most delectable Gallega lunch.  
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Must-do’s for a more meaningful Santiago de Compostela tour:

Don’t get me wrong. Sheer joy and exhilaration is what I found after my visit to Santiago de Compostela. But I admit to being less contented with the tour, after witnessing the current state of the cathedral and not having seen the place enough.

I felt there was so much to do that could have made the trip more meaningful. As a reaction, I drew out a list of things that I want to do next time  I visit Santiago again (God-permitting). As a pilgrim? Well, nothing is impossible — this saying I always believe in.

1. Return to the site with the cathedral devoid of scaffolding

Perhaps, in a few years’ time, they will have brought down the obstructions, which I thought should not be there in the first place. By then, with nary a hint of scaffolding, it will have been restored to its original state, and dripping in immense beauty and grandeur like what’s shown in the succeeding photo. Source of Image below: Carlos Miguel Solis Seco

(2007) (059)

2. Attend the pre-midday mass (10:30AM)

We attended the mass that was scheduled at past noon, which was much like any ordinary mass I hear in Madrid, except for several mention of the patron saint. I realized that I should have attended the much earlier mass since it was the one being wholly dedicated to the way of St. James. That mass, which lasted for almost two hours, was also dedicated to the peregrinos (pilgrims) who completed the Camino de Santiago. Ideally, my next visit will be on a Holy Year, the year when the Feast of St. James falls on a Sunday. This allows for rare rituals to be performed – like when the Botafumeiro (thurible) is swung while giving off an aromatic smoke. The 10:30AM mass is the best time to embrace the urn that contains St. James’ ashes image

3. Have my own pilgrim’s cane, scallop shell, and meja (witch) doll as souvenirs

Mejas are benevolent witches. They bring good luck when brought along during one’s pilgrimage. The bordon or cane is considered as a third leg of the pilgrim, and is supposed to provide safe guidance along the way. Scallop shells are worn on the chest to identity the wearer as a pilgrim; this gives him access to lodgings. Large shells are also used to hold food or water for drinking.  These three items are said to influence a pilgrim’s camino, turning it into a safe and successful one. image

4. Book a room at Parador de Santiago

Located within Praza Obradoiro is the Hostal dos Reis Catolicos (or Hostal de los Reyes Catolicos), rated as one of Europe’s most beautiful hotels. It is popularly known as the Parador de Santiago. Book here and you have the bragging right of having stayed at the world’s oldest operating hotel. If you’re a pilgrim, consider yourself lucky if you are picked to enjoy a free accommodation at the hotel — the hostal offers this privilege to a limited number of Way of Saint James peregrinos. It was once a refuge for pilgrims of ancient times, but today, it normally charges no less than 100euros for a single room. I thought it’s quite prohibitive considering I’m a self-confessed budget traveler. But I’d say I’ll go for it if I have the money — there’s no shame in aiming high. image

5. Own a pilgrim’s passport (complete with stamps) and certificate

The pilgrim’s passport, the certificate that you completed the camino, and the religious renewal that goes with the experience are good enough reasons to add the pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela in my bucket list. Still, much of me is hesitant knowing the difficulty of this goal. To think about 500 or so miles of camino de santiago trail that you must accomplish is exasperating already, to begin with. Although I read somewhere that walking a minimum of 100 miles is enough to merit the certificate. You must, however, make sure that your passport has the necessary number of stamps, which is at least three, to be issued the certificate. The pilgrim’s ultimate destination? The Old Town, specifically its main cathedral, where the bones of St. James are buried.  Hopefully, it too will serve as my final destination, even if I have to choose the easiest and shortest of the Camino de Santiago routes, once I decide to be a peregrino. Our pilgrim shell, passport and certificateImage source: Courtesy of Student Christian Movement

Bound for Madrid

image Going home. We left at 4PM, and arrived at Moncloa Metro area in Centro Madrid at 12 Midnight)

Do I really have plans of pursuing a second visit? Shall I find myself walking the camino as a pilgrim this time? To be frank, revisiting Santiago is extremely difficult due to the distance, time and financial constraints. But then, if given the chance, I’d be there in a heart beat. I would love to go back – whether as a peregrino or as an ordinary tourist. For now, I’ll cherish this visit of Santiago de Compostela. It’s definitely an experience that’s not only exhilarating but  spiritual as well.

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My Great Andalucian Adventure: Cordoba

Many believe that Spain is all about Madrid – that the city is the best place to be if you’re in the country. The fact is that there must be hundreds more regions, cities, pueblos, and barrios to see and explore in this Iberian peninsula other than its capital – and one of them is Andalucia.

Where is Andalucia?

The region, which because of its exotic qualities has made it a favorite setting of popular movies like Lawrence of Arabia, Indiana Jones and many more, is found in Spain’s southern point. It is undeniably world-class as a tourist destination, where every area must reek in countless amazing sites and attractions.

The region also boasts of the ideal climate all throughout the year – hot in summer and mildly cold in winter – perfect for those once-in-a-lifetime vacation adventures.

In other words, you need not be stuck with Madrid as Spain affords you at least another option. If you’re someone who rares to experience the most unique Spanish culture and tradition, Andalucia is the perfect choice.

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The 8 provinces of Andalucia are clumped together down the southern tip of Spain (Map courtesy of www.theodora.com/maps used with permission.)

Andalucia has eight provinces – these are Cadiz, Cordoba, Almeria, Jaen, Granada, Huelva, Malaga and Seville. Each one is beautiful and breathtaking – ready for any tourist to explore and appreciate.

My next two blog posts (including this) will be about Cordoba
Spain
and Granada, the first two Andalucian provinces that I had the pleasure to see and experience.

Off to my Andalucian Adventure

A city that was declared a World Heritage site, specifically the Historical Center of Cordoba, it was first ruled by the Romans until the Moors took over in the 8th Century. It was said to be the start of the blossoming of a city, the greatness of which easily rivaled other Moslem territories, like ancient Damascus and Constantinople.

And as Cordoba experienced being immersed in both Roman and Moorish cultures, what resulted is a place that exudes the strong characteristics of these two as evidenced by the massive edifice of worship that accommodates at least two religions; the Moorish-inspired whitewashed towns complete with Catholic cathedrals, basilicas, and parroquias; and the lively fiestas and celebrations that honor both Christian and Islamic traditions, among others.

First Stop: Cordoba Spain

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Thru the initiative of an adventurous bunch of Filipinos (their common denominator is that they attend masses at Iglesia de Nuestra Sra. del Espino, along C/ Conde de Serrallo near Plaza del Castilla), a Saturday trip to Andalucia’s Cordoba and Granada was organized.

Leaving the church premises at 1AM, the bus arrived at Cordoba before 6AM, stopping near the foot of the Puente Romano and the Gate of the Bridge. It was still early in the dawn, but a number of people are already around and checking the place. We just came in, yet it was easy to to tell that the place reeks of magnificent attractions — and the following are just some of them.

Cordoba Spain Attractions

1. La Mezquita

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Try to start a discussion about Cordoba, and surely, La Mezquita will be mentioned. It is to be expected as the edifice is of utmost importance to the Cordobans, it being a highly-revered Arab-Andalucian treasure.

Mesquita means Mosque, and its complete name is Mezquita Catedral de Cordoba. It is called as such because it was originally a mosque, but now serves as a Catholic place of worship. Mesquita is unique in that the Moslems also want to have it for their own, proving its immense significance to the Islam religion. In fact, it is recognized as the most important Islamic structure within the Western world.

One look at the façade and you see how it reflects Moslem and Baroque designs. It is a huge mosque, and touted as the third largest in the world. Judging from our walk around its perimeter, the building must cover an area equivalent to a few city blocks.  No doubt, it is one of the most fascinating landmarks that you can see in Cordoba.

2. The bell tower of Mezquita

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This is the present bell tower and is open to the public if you’re touring the Mesquita-Catedral. During the days of the Moor occupation, the tower was originally a minaret or a place where the call to prayer is made.

Built by Abderraman III, the leaders of the cathedral decided to convert it into a bell tower, with the last of the series of reconstruction happening in 1664. If you want great views of Cordoba and the grounds of the Mezquita-Cathedral itself, it is a must that you climb up the bell tower.

3. Puente Romano

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In English, it means the Roman Bridge – an impressive structure that crosses the equally great Rio Guadalquivir. This is known to be the sole bridge of the Ancient Cordoba region for a long time. A colossal work of architecture by the Romans way back in the 1st century A.D., the Spanish government reconstruct it into its original state to preserve its historical importance.

Watch the above video of the Puente Romano de Cordoba as it was featured in HBO’s Game of Thrones. Notice its appearance markedly altered thru the use of computer-generated effects. (Video is courtesy of Cordoba Film Office).

4. Torre de Calahorra

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After the Moslem took reigns of Cordoba, they added a tower to the Roman Bridge in order to protect it and the city itself from invaders coming from the south side of the banks. Inside you will find a museum that displays artifacts from the three great religions – Christian, Jewish, and Moslem. It is open to the public, starting at 10AM. Price of regular admission: 4.50 euros

5. Plaza de la Corredera

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This is one of the city’s famous squares, built right within its midst. The plaza presents a strong Castilian style and is said to be modeled after Madrid’s Plaza Mayor. The square is rich in ancient Roman history, evidenced by the pieces of mosaics found in the site at the time of its construction.

Today, especially now that is summer, the terrace becomes a place where great drinks are enjoyed such as a chilled Fino. On one side of the plaza is found the entrance to a popular Cordoba mercado – El Mercado de la Corredera.

6. Puerta del Puenta

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In English, it means Gate to the Bridge. Puerta del Puenta was constructed in 1570 with Hernan Ruiz II at the helm. Its imposing presence was meant to greet King Felipe II during his Royal visit of the city.

Located at the end of the Puente de Romano, the arch also served as the entrance to Cordoba; hence, the name. The one that stands today was a replacement to the Moslem Gate, which then also replaced the original gate created by the Romans of Julius Ceaser’s time.

7. Roman Water Wheel

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Walk to the right of that part of the bridge near the Gate, and you will see the giant (wooden?) water wheel constructed during the ancient Roman times. It was initially intended as a mill wheel, but the Moors later used it as a way of bringing water to the palace. It is said that the one standing today is a replica. The original wheel was dismantled as the noise it created was deemed a nuisance by Queen Isabella.

8. Triunfo de San Rafael

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This is an old Monument with a locked gate found near the Mezquita-Catedral. It is built to honor the protector of the city, Archangel San Rafael. It is near the Gates to the Roman bridge, a strategic position which I assume as a way for San Rafael to oversee and protect the city.

9. Cruz del Rastro

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Cruz del Rastro, or the Flea market Cross, is a reminder of that part of history when the Christians and Jews were pitted against each other. The end of the conflict between the two groups and in honor of Alonzo de Aguilar is remembered with the construction and installation of the cross in the Middle of the flea market.

10. Statue of San Rafael

imageAn addition to the Roman Bridge, way back in the 1600’s, is still another magnificent statue of San Rafael. Created by Bernabe Gomez del Rio, it stands right in the middle of the bridge. In front is a candle stand on which visitors and tourists may light a candle in honor of the Patron Saint of Cordova

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Cordoba is, needless to say, an Iberian city that’s unique because of the harmonious blend of Roman and Moorish cultures. Apart from the Roman and Moslem built structures, towns, and bridges, the place is above all proudly Spanish; it exhibits strong Iberian tradition that was handed down through numerous generations, like the famous flamenco dances and the celebration of Spanish fiestas.

Particularly awaited by many during the month of May is Cordoba’s Patio festival. It’s a major event in which the town residents open their patios or yards wide to entertain tourists and guests.

There’s always the next time, I can only say. If ever I get the chance to return, I must do it outside the hot summer months – as the less punishing weather will allow me to see more sites and really enjoy endless trekking with friends, hopping from one whitewashed Andalusian town to another. Here’s hoping to see more of Cordoba once again.

How to Go From Madrid to Cordoba:

imageThe blackness of predawn and the silhouette of the palm trees add to the somber depiction of the Torre de Calahorra

Bus: Mendez Alvaro is where public bus services to different cities and regions, including Cordova, are available. Basic bus tickets are worth 15 euros; however, be prepared for a long travel, which is approximately 5 hours. If you don’t mind the long journey, then go and book a bus seat now at Madrid’s premier bus station at the Intercambiador, where its own metro train stop, the Metro Mendez Alvaro, is also found.

Train: Want to reach Cordova faster? Take the fast train service of AVE, and you will arrive at your destination in under two hours. Tickets, of course, are much more expensive at 70 euros.

Join Informal Group Tours: I paid 40 euros for the whole trip, and this amount even includes the entrance fee to the Nazaries Palace of the Alhambra complex. And so, one clear advantage is that you are saved the trouble of getting the entrance tickets – the organizers do it for you. Information about these types of tours are usually posted at message boards of local churches.

The only downside of these tours is that time is very limited; we were allotted only 3 hours in Cordoba as we were also scheduled to go to Alhambra of Granada. Hence, we didn’t visit many other important sites like the Juderia and Medina Azahara. We weren’t even able to witness the magnificent interiors of Mezquita since it opens at 10AM and we had to leave at 9.30AM. (The entrance fee is 8 euros.)

Therefore, to make the most of your travel, my advice is to take the bus at Mendez Alvaro, and go online to buy a professional guided tour package that covers much of Cordoba Spain attractions.

My next post: Alhambra of Granada